# quantum

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**Quantum superposition**— is the fundamental law of quantum mechanics. It defines the allowed state space of a quantum mechanical system.In Probability theory, every possible event has a positive number associated to it, the probability, which gives the chance that it… …72

**Quantum error correction**— is used in quantum computing to protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise. Quantum error correction is essential if one is to achieve fault tolerant quantum computation that can deal not only with noise on …73

**Quantum Darwinism**— is a theory explaining the emergence of the classical world from the quantum world as due to a process of Darwinian selection. It is proposed by Wojciech Zurek and a group of collaborators including Ollivier, Poulin, Paz and Blume Kohout. The… …74

**Quantum noise**— is uncertainty of some physical quantity due to its quantum origin.In the case of number of particles (photons or electrons), the quantum noise is also called shot noise. Most optical communications use amplitude modulation. In this case, the… …75

**Quantum cascade laser**— Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are semiconductor lasers that emit in the mid to far infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and were first demonstrated by Jerome Faist, Federico Capasso, Deborah Sivco, Carlo Sirtori, Albert Hutchinson,… …76

**Quantum reflection**— is a physical phenomenon involving the reflection of a matter wave from an attractive potential. In classical physics, such a phenomenon is not possible; for instance when one magnet is pulled toward another, you do not expect one of the magnets… …77

**Quantum technology**— is a new field of physics and engineering, which transitions some of the stranger features of quantum mechanics, especially quantum entanglement, into practical applications such as quantum computing, quantum cryptography, quantum metrology,… …78

**Quantum Ökonomie**— ist die Bezeichnung der Denkschule innerhalb der Wirtschaftswissenschaft, welche vom französischen Ökonomen Bernard Schmitt (* 1929 in Colmar, Frankreich) ab den 1950er Jahren in Dijon (Frankreich) und Freiburg (Schweiz) entwickelt wurde. Quantum …79

**Quantum information science**— concerns information science that depends on quantum effects in physics. It includes theoretical issues in computational models as well as more experimental topics in quantum physics including what can and cannot be done with quantum information …80

**Quantum economy**— – this notion first occurred in an unpublished work by Anatoly V Kondratenko, Physical Modeling of Economic Systems. Classical and Quantum Economies that was put on the Internet in English in Novosibirsk in 2005. Main notionsQuantum economy in… …